Monthly Archives: August 2017


Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child’s life.[6] These signs often develop gradually, though some children with autism reach their developmental milestones at a normal pace and then regress.[7] The diagnostic criteria require that symptoms become apparent in early childhood, typically before age three.[8]

Autism is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[2] Some cases are strongly associated with certain infections during pregnancy including rubella and use of alcohol or cocaine.[9] Controversies surround other proposed environmental causes;[10] for example the vaccine hypotheses, which have since been disproven. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood.[11] In the DSM V, autism is included within the autism spectrum (ASDs), as is Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which was diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome were not met.[8][12]

Early speech or behavioral interventions can help children with autism gain self-care, social, and communication skills.[4] Although there is no known cure,[4] there have been reported cases of children who recovered.[13] Not many children with autism live independently after reaching adulthood, though some become successful.[14] An autistic culture has developed, with some individuals seeking a cure and others believing autism should be accepted as a difference and not treated as a disorder.[15]

Globally, autism is estimated to affect 24.8 million people as of 2015.[5] As of 2010, the number of people affected is estimated at about 1–2 per 1,000 worldwide. It occurs four to five times more often in boys than girls. About 1.5% of children in the United States (one in 68) are diagnosed with ASD as of 2014, a 30% increase from one in 88 in 2012.[16][17][18] The rate of autism among adults aged 18 years and over in the United Kingdom is 1.1%.[19] The number of people diagnosed has been increasing dramatically since the 1980s, partly due to changes in diagnostic practice;[18] the question of whether actual rates have increased is unresolved.[20]

Autism spectrum disorder
Autism is a highly variable neurodevelopmental disorder[21] that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission.[22] People with autism may be severely impaired in some respects but normal, or even superior, in others.[23] Overt symptoms gradually begin after the age of six months, become established by age two or three years,[24] and tend to continue through adulthood, although often in more muted form.[25] It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.[26] Autism’s individual symptoms occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathologically severe from common traits.[27]

Social development
Social deficits distinguish autism and the related autism spectrum disorders (ASD; see Classification) from other developmental disorders.[25] People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicals, or people with normal neural development, as leaving her feeling “like an anthropologist on Mars”.[28]

Unusual social development becomes apparent early in childhood. Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-taking, and do not have the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things.[29]


Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems. [1] This is an active area of biological research that includes the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms and the study of thousands of different cellular processes such as cellular respiration and the many other metabolic and enzymatic processes that lead to production and utilization of energy in forms such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. [2] [3] That is, the goal of bioenergetics is to describe how living organisms acquire and transform energy in order to perform biological work. [4] The study of metabolic pathways is thus essential to bioenergetics.

Bioenergetics is the part of biochemistry concerned with the energy involved in making and breaking of chemical bonds in the molecules found in biological organisms. [5] It can also be defined as the study of energy relationships and energy transformations and transductions in living organisms. [6] The ability to harness energy from a variety of metabolic pathways is a property of all living organisms. Growth, development, anabolism and catabolism are some of the central processes in the study of biological organisms, because the role of energy is fundamental to such biological processes. [7] Life is dependent on energy transformations; living organisms survive because of exchange of energy between living tissues/ cells and the outside environment. Some organisms, such as autotrophs, can acquire energy from sunlight (through photosynthesis) without needing to consume nutrients and break them down. [8] Other organisms, like heterotrophs, must intake nutrients from food to be able to sustain energy by breaking down chemical bonds in nutrients during metabolic processes such as glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Importantly, as a direct consequence of the First Law of Thermodynamics, autotrophs and heterotrophs participate in a universal metabolic network– by eating autotrophs (plants), heterotrophs harness energy that was initially transformed by the plants during photosynthesis. [9]

In a living organism, chemical bonds are broken and made as part of the exchange and transformation of energy. Energy is available for work (such as mechanical work) or for other processes (such as chemical synthesis and anabolic processes in growth), when weak bonds are broken and stronger bonds are made. The production of stronger bonds allows release of usable energy.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main “energy currency” for organisms; the goal of metabolic and catabolic processes are to synthesize ATP from available starting materials (from the environment), and to break- down ATP (into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate) by utilizing it in biological processes. [10] In a cell, the ratio of ATP to ADP concentrations is known as the “energy charge” of the cell. A cell can use this energy charge to relay information about cellular needs; if there is more ATP than ADP available, the cell can use ATP to do work, but if there is more ADP than ATP available, the cell must synthesize ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. [11]

Living organisms produce ATP from energy sources via oxidative phosphorylation. The terminal phosphate bonds of ATP are relatively weak compared with the stronger bonds formed when ATP is hydrolyzed (broken down by water) to adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. Here it is the thermodynamically favorable free energy of hydrolysis that results in energy release; the phosphoanhydride bond between the terminal phosphate group and the rest of the ATP molecule does not itself contain this energy. [12] An organism’s stockpile of ATP is used as a battery to store energy in cells. [13] Utilization of chemical energy from such molecular bond rearrangement powers biological processes in every biological organism.

Living organisms obtain energy from organic and inorganic materials; i.e. ATP can be synthesized from a variety of biochemical precursors. For example, lithotrophs can oxidize minerals such as nitrates or forms of sulfur, such as elemental sulfur, sulfites, and hydrogen sulfide to produce ATP. In photosynthesis, autotrophs produce ATP using light energy, whereas heterotrophs must consume organic compounds, mostly including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The amount of energy actually obtained by the organism is lower than the amount present in the food; there are losses in digestion, metabolism, and thermogenesis.[14]

Environmental materials that an organism intakes are generally combined with oxygen to release energy, although some can also be oxidized anaerobically by various organisms.


Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).[1] Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the (related) fields of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, biomanufacturing, molecular engineering, etc.

For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.[2] The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Károly Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology, and development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests.[2]

The wide concept of “biotech” or “biotechnology” encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and “improvements” to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization. Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock.[3] As per European Federation of Biotechnology, biotechnology is the integration of natural science and organisms, cells, parts thereof, and molecular analogues for products and services.[4] Biotechnology also writes on[clarification needed] the pure biological sciences (animal cell culture, biochemistry, cell biology, embryology, genetics, microbiology, and molecular biology). In many instances, it is also dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology including:

bioinformatics, a new brand of computer science
bioprocess engineering
chemical engineering
Conversely, modern biological sciences (including even concepts such as molecular ecology) are intimately entwined and heavily dependent on the methods developed through biotechnology and what is commonly thought of as the life sciences industry. Biotechnology is the research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms and any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering where high value-added products could be planned (reproduced by biosynthesis, for example), forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured, and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations (for the return from bottomless initial investment on R & D) and gaining durable patents rights (for exclusives rights for sales, and prior to this to receive national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects or safety concerns by using the products).[5][6][7]

By contrast, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that more heavily emphasizes higher systems approaches (not necessarily the altering or using of biological materials directly) for interfacing with and utilizing living things. Bioengineering is the application of the principles of engineering and natural sciences to tissues, cells and molecules. This can be considered as the use of knowledge from working with and manipulating biology to achieve a result that can improve functions in plants and animals.[8] Relatedly, biomedical engineering is an overlapping field that often draws upon and applies biotechnology (by various definitions), especially in certain sub-fields of biomedical or chemical engineering such as tissue engineering, biopharmaceutical engineering, and genetic engineering.


Brewing was an early application of biotechnology
Main article: History of biotechnology
Although not normally what first comes to mind, many forms of human-derived agriculture clearly fit the broad definition of “‘utilizing a biotechnological system to make products”. Indeed, the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise.

Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best suited crops, having the highest yields, to produce enough food to support a growing population.

Foods That Beat Fatigue

Foods That Beat Fatigue
Unprocessed foods Fruits and vegetables Non-caffeinated beverages Lean proteins Whole grains and complex carbs Nuts Water Vitamins and supplements Bananas Oats Chia seeds Takeaway
Your body runs off what you feed it. The best way to get the most energy from your food is to make sure you’re giving yourself the best food possible.

Besides what you eat, when you eat can also impact your energy. Did you ever notice how you feel sluggish after a big lunch or dinner? That’s because your body is using its energy to digest that big meal instead of powering the rest of your body.

The easiest way to avoid the post-meal coma is to eat several smaller-portioned meals throughout the day. This will keep your body fueled regularly and may even help you lose weight.

1. Unprocessed foods
While a cheeseburger and fries might be comforting while you’re eating it, it’s nutritional value is low. Processed foods, such as some packaged or canned foods, candy, boxed meals, and precooked meats are typically full of preservatives, additives, sodium, trans fat, and artificial ingredients that may slow you down.

2. Fresh, seasonal fruits and vegetables
The fresher your food is, the more nutrients it will contain. Unlike processed foods that may be stripped of nutrients for a longer shelf life, fresh foods typically contain higher nutrients. Eating in-season fruits and vegetables means they ripened naturally.

3. Non-caffeinated beverages
Caffeine is OK in moderation, and it has been shown to have some health benefits. Although it provides a short-term boost, it doesn’t actually provide the body with energy. The first sips may give you a jolt, but if you’re not providing your body with good nutrition and balanced meals and snacks, you’ll eventually feel run down.

If you must have your fix, opt for black coffee or unsweetened tea. Sodas and energy drinks can be full of refined sugar and artificial ingredients that can cause you to crash, and lead to other health issues if overconsuming.

4. Lean proteins
Red meats marbled in fat adds saturated fat to your diet. Leaner meats, like chicken, turkey, and fish, still provide quality protein, but contain less saturated fat. Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon and tuna, can add beneficial, heart healthy fats.

5. Whole grains and complex carbs
Just like processed foods, refined carbohydrates like sugars and white flour add little nutrition. Choosing whole grain foods and complex carbohydrates ensures that your body gets the full benefits of the hull of the grain that adds fiber to your diet.

6. Nuts and seeds

Nuts and seeds are some of the best foods to beat fatigue and fight hunger. Getting a variety of nuts and seeds in your diet can provide healthy nutrients and energy. Try almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, pecans, walnuts, sunflower seeds, and pumpkin seeds. Eating raw, unsalted versions is recommended. And they’re the perfect midafternoon snack.

7. Water
Drinking water is essential for optimal functioning of the body. Although water doesn’t provide energy in the form of calories, it helps facilitate the energetic processes in the body, which is an energy boost in itself. Sip on water throughout the day, and try to swap out sodas, coffee, and other drinks for a glass of water. This simple change can make a big difference, and you’ll feel better before you know it.

8. Vitamins and supplements
If you’re not getting everything you need from your food, you may want to consider taking a daily vitamin. Consulting with a nutritionist or homeopathic doctor could get you started on a nutritional supplement regimen. Make sure to talk to your doctor about any and all nutritional supplements you’re considering.

9. Bananas
Researchers compared bananas to carbohydrate sports drinks in cyclists who needed sustained energy for their long rides. They found that the banana offered just as much fuel to the riders as the drink. Bananas, right? Turns out, bananas are packed with potassium, fiber, vitamins, and the perfect amount of carbohydrates that provide you with a big boost of natural energy. Plus, bananas are often less than a dollar per fruit, and that’s a price you can’t beat for so much extra energy.

10. Oats
They’re not just for breakfast. A big bowl of oats packs a punch of filling fiber and even a little protein. Plus, it’s good for people who experience blood sugar spikes and drops with other processed breakfast cereals. Choosing the plain versions of instant packets of oatmeal, steel-cut oats, or old-fashioned oats is best as they aren’t filled with extra sugar. You can then have control of what you put in it such as milk, a little honey, and some mixed berries.

Disadvantages Of Steroids

Side effects

Due to the growing popularity of steroid abuse throughout the world, horrific side effects of steroid usage have come forward in recent years. The side effects of steroid abuse overwhelmingly outnumber the positives related to steroid use. Here are some of the many negative side effects that have been related to steroid use:

Steroids are known to adversely affect the brain of a user. Various studies have reflected a pattern between abnormal testosterone levels and aggressive behavior in steroid users. Users Roid Ragehave been found to indulge in violent acts and steroid use has been often used as an excuse. Users of high dosage steroids have often been troubled with psychotic tendencies and heightened levels of anxiety. Other effects include loss of sleep, euphoric tendencies, paranoia, and depression among many others. Users are also known to have exhibited extreme mood swings and in extreme cases, formations of split personalities have been reported. Steroid users are also likely to become more and more dependent on steroids which may lead to an unhealthy addiction.
Steroids are also known to have caused side effects that are visible on a user’s face. Research shows that steroid use leads to higher water retention in the user’s body causing them to develop a round face with puffy cheeks. Facial hair eruptions in females have also been reported. Bad breath is also a common side effect. The development of a husky voice in female users is quiet common. Acne formation on the face and throughout the body is one of the easily visible side effects caused by steroid use.

Steroids are known to cause eye damage as well. Corticosteroids are known to cause permanent eye damage to long-term users. Eye infections are being reported by users too. Complicated eye disorders like cataract and glaucoma are known fallouts of steroid use .
Steroids are also known to cause hair damage. Male pattern baldness has been observed in users of both sexes. Steroids facilitate the production of dihydrotestosterone or DHT that are responsible for causing hair follicles to weaken and shrink drastically. As a result, the follicles are able to produce only fine hair. Gradually, with sustained use of steroids the user is likely to experience permanent hair loss with decreasing hair follicles.
Steroid users should be aware of the complications that prolonged steroid use can cause to the heart. It has been observed that users continue to take this side effect lightly until a serious cardiovascular issue comes to the fore. Steroids cause heart diseases and it becomes more evident with consistent increase in cumulative cholesterol levels. Cholesterol buildup has been observed on the walls of blood vessels in steroid users which may result in fatal heart strokes. Steroids cause massive reduction in good cholesterol (HDL) levels and dramatic increase in bad cholesterol levels (LDL). Blood pressure is also known to be high in steroid users and they are also likely to experience increased clots in blood vessels. This will cause a disruption in blood flow affecting the heart muscle and increasing the risk of a heart attack to the user.
Steroid users are known to suffer from several disorders related to the stomach. Users may feel that their stomachs are bloated and this can be an uncomfortable experience. Nausea followed by rounds of vomiting, which may at times contain visible traces of blood have been reported by steroid users. Steroids cause irritation on the stomach lining, sustained development of stomach acids, with a degradation of stomach mucus levels that are likely to cause nausea and vomiting.
Kidneys are a critical part of the human body responsible for the expulsion of waste material from the blood stream. They are also regulators of salt and water levels in the body and blood pressure. High blood pressure causes considerable damage to the blood vessels as well as the filtration system of the kidneys. Usage of oral steroids causes most of the issues in kidneys. There is a noticeable increase in the average blood clotting time in users since the blood clotting factors will be suppressed.

Consumption of ora lsteroids leads to the dilution of hormones in the bloodstream making the job of the kidneys hard and causing a lot of strain on them. Steroid users who practice bodybuilding or forms of athletics are also on high protein diets and take a high amount of protein supplements. This may lead to formation of kidney stone which will require a surgery to be removed. Kidney stones tend to shut down the opening to the urinary tract inhibiting the user’s ability to expel urine and retain harmful waste in the bloodstream. High blood pressure damages the blood vessels in the kidney by altering their proportion. Damaged blood vessels result in poor blood supply and repress the filtration capacity of the user’s kidneys.

Causes Of Muscle Fatigue And Its Treatment

10 causes of fatigue

Fatigue is a symptom of many health conditions.

1) Mental health issues

It can result from stress, bereavement and grief, eating disorders, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, anxiety, moving home, boredom, and divorce. It can occur with clinical depression, either due to the depression itself, or because of associated problems, such as insomnia.

2) Endocrine and metabolic reasons

Conditions such as Cushing’s disease, kidney disease, electrolyte problems, diabetes, hypothyroidism, anemia, kidney disease, and liver disease can all lead to fatigue.

3) Drugs and medications

Some antidepressents, antihypertensives, statins, steroids, antihistamines, medication withdrawal, sedatives, and anti-anxiety drugs can cause drowsiness.

4) Heart and lung conditions

Pneumonia, arrhythmias, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), valvular heart disease, coronary heart disease, and congestive heart failure, among other heart and lung diseases, can cause fatigue.

5) Sleep problems

Working late, shift work, jet lag, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, insomnia, and reflux esophagitis can lead to a lack of sleep and fatigue.

6) Chemicals and substances

Vitamin deficiencies, mineral deficiencies, poisoning, and consuming too many caffeinated or alcoholic beverages may make it harder to get to sleep, or stay asleep, especially if these are consumed too close to bedtime.

7) Various diseases, conditions, states, and treatments

cancer, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia, systemic lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, massive blood loss, and weakened immune systems can all cause fatigue.

Fatigue can also be a sign of infection. Some infections that cause tiredness include malaria, tuberculosis (TB), infectious mononucleasis also known as glandular fever, cytomegalovirus, HIV infection, flu, and hepatitis, among others.

8) Chronic pain

Patients with chronic pain often wake up tired, even after sleeping for a long time, especially if pain disrupts their sleep.The combination of pain and lack of sleep can cause persistent tiredness.

Some diseases and conditions where pain is the main symptom, such as fibromyalgia, are also linked to other conditions, such as sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome These further worsen symptoms of fatigue.

9) Being overweight or underweight

Being overweight increases the risk of fatigue, for various reasons.These include having to carry more weight, and being more likely to have a condition where fatigue is a common symptom, such as diabetes and sleep apnea.

A person who is underweight may tire easily because they have less muscle strength.

10) Too much or too little activity

A person who feels tired may not exercise, and lack of exercise can cause further fatigue. Lack of exercise may eventually make it harder and more tiring to perform a physical chore.

Fatigue can also affect healthy individuals after intense mental or physical activity. Working or staying awake for long hours without a break, and especially driving, increase the risk of accidents. Statistics have shown that, among truck and bus drivers, longer hours lead to more accidents.


To treat fatigue successfully, it is necessary first to find the underlying cause.

This could be:

  • anemia or low iron without anemia
  • sleep apnea
  • poorly controlled blood sugar
  • underactive thyroid
  • an infection
  • obesity
  • depression

Appropriate treatment for the condition can help alleviate fatigue.

Yoga, CBT, and mindfulness for fatigue

Researchers have found, for example, that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) combined with graded exercise therapy (GET) can be an effective treatment for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).

Another study found that symptoms of fatigue and depression fell in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who underwent mindfulness meditation training.

Yoga has been found to improve symptoms of fatigue and sleep quality in cancer survivors. The 4-week program included postures, meditation, breathing, and some other techniques.

It is important not to drive while sleepy. A survey carried out by the CDC found that around 1 in 25 drivers aged 18 years and above had fallen asleep while driving in the previous 30 days.

Overcoming persistent fatigue

Here are some tips for overcoming fatigue.


To practice good sleep hygiene:

  • Aim to go to bed and wake up at the same time each day.
  • Set the bedroom temperature at a comfortable level, neither too cold nor too hot.
  • Make sure the room is dark and quiet.
  • Avoid screen time an hour before sleeping, as the light and sounds from a TV or computer can stimulate brain activity, affecting sleep quality.
  • Avoid eating within 90 minutes or 2 hours before going to bed.
  • As bedtime approaches, physically and mentally slow down.

Having a warm bath and listening to some soothing music can help you clear your mind of stressful and worrying thoughts before going to sleep.

Keeping a sleep diary may help.

Eating and drinking habits

Diet can affect how tired or energetic we feel.

Here are some tips:

  • Eat three regular meals each day, at the same time each day.
  • Avoid junk food and follow a well-balanced diet.
  • Try to regulate your weight, either losing weight or eating more, as appropriate.
  • Consume plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
  • Avoid crash-dieting, as this can affect sleep.
  • Drink alcoholic and caffeinated beverages in moderation, or not at all.

A moderate and well-balanced diet can lead to better health and better sleep.

The top 5 exercises to increase the volume of your hamstrings

The legs ensure the stability and lifting power of the human body. If you want to do any type of lifting where you are not sitting, lying fake Activatrol Male Testosterone pills on your back or on your stomach, you must have good legs that will support the weight you lift. When your arms raise 45 pounds, your legs support the weight of the bar plus the weight of your body.

The goal of professional fitness practitioners is to be able to easily lift hundreds of kilos of the soil. Being thrown-away with more than 200 kilos is not only enjoyable, but it’s also impressive when you can do it without your legs shuddering.

The 5 best exercises for hamstring muscles go beyond simple mass building. It is a way to refine your body and tone your legs to ensure that your entire body is solid, fit and homogeneous.


The anatomy of the hamstrings

The hamstrings go from the lower part of the thigh to the knee joint and continue to the base of the buttocks. This muscle group often works together with the lower back muscles and with the buttocks when you bend and pick up heavy items. The main objective is of course to develop the stability of the trunk on the posterior face of your body.

The thigh is composed of three muscles:

The crural biceps

The semi-membranous muscle

The semi-tendinous muscle

Read: Full description and anatomy of hamstring muscles

These muscles work together to flex the knee during movements and weight training exercises like leg bending and raised ground. In addition, these muscles work in conjunction with the lower back and buttocks for side rotations, extensions, abduction and stability when you bend, stand up and turn around.

Here are 5 exercises to train your hamstrings

While almost all bodybuilding exercises use the legs to some extent, you can not just rely on this passive use to work the leg muscle groups. This solicitation is indirect and will not benefit your hamstrings as much as if you train them directly through specific exercises. These 5 exercises to develop your hamstrings muscles will ensure that the muscles of your legs will do their part to ensure the stability of your body throughout your workout.

Hamstring Exercise # 1 – Lifted legs

Lifted of roulain musculation thigh

The lifted leg strained legs is one of the most effective exercises you can do for your hamstring muscles. A normal earth lifter will target your hamstring muscles while you do your workout, but the majority of the workload will be placed on your back. If you are exercising with your legs stretched, you are more demanding your hamstring muscles throughout the movement.

To get you up, climb onto a platform. By doing this, the weight starts from a level below ground level, which further stretches the muscles of the thigh. Lift the weight up, then bend at the waist until you feel your muscles comfortably stretched. Use your hips to lift the weight back and up.

Hamstring Exercise # 2 – Leg Flexions in the Extended Position

Leg curl training ischio

Of course, hamstrings support a lot of exercises during your standing workouts, but you can work in a prone position to focus on that muscle group. The movement is minimal and although it is not the movement that stimulates most hamstrings it specifically targets this muscle group. If your bodybuilding consists of a number of other exercises for hamstring development like squats and raised ground then this workout can help you on days when your workout is lighter.

How to get massive ischios?

Use a machine that will allow you to lie on your stomach. There are specific machines that allow you to do this workout. Use an adequate weight that will allow you to stretch well without working too much muscle. Be careful not to extend your knee too much when you arrive at the bottom of the movement.

Hamstring Exercise # 3 – Wide Squats

Squat wide grip to muscle the thighs

The squat is a great workout for the upper leg muscles, but you can also do sit squats and your hamstrings will be grateful. This training consists of a set of squats made using a box, a small bench or a pile of weights. The height of the surface should be adjusted so that you are in the rest position at the level that would normally be the lowest of the squat.

When you do this type of squat by spreading the legs, a lot of stress is placed on the hamstrings. This happens when you pause on the box when you get to the bottom of the movement, then use your hips to go up.

Hamstring Exercise # 4 – Plate drags

Flat drag muscle ischio

Some of the best workouts do not require additional equipment, only a resistance. With flat drag, you only need a great weight.

Lie on your back on and stick to something fixed. Fully extend your legs and place the heel of your shoe in the hole in the center of a weight disc. Slide the disc towards your center of gravity by flexing the knee and then replacing the disc by extending the leg. Start with a low weight and increase weight as you go.

Hamstring Exercise # 5 – Lifted with a bar

Lifted of earth for ischio

As mentioned earlier, ground lift is an excellent training because it only targets part of the hamstring. It adapts to all workouts, but especially to the top 5 exercises for hamstring muscles, as it requires many muscle groups. This is one of the core exercises of hundreds of weight training programs.

Any variation of the ground raised 100% works to the leg muscles to some extent. When you have a good position during your dumbbell lifting session you will be working extra muscles useful for stability while pushing the limits of the muscles of your legs to boost the strength of your trunk. With squat, it is the most effective exercise to gain muscle, develop your strength and lose calories.

Read: How to increase the volume of the muscles of the back thigh ?

Lay the bar on the ground just above the ankles in front of your shins. Keep your position and take the bar with a hold of the width of your shoulders and lower yourself to catch the bar. Place your knees so that they are inside your elbows. When lifting, use your whole body to stabilize your trunk and your back, lift with your legs (hips, glutes and legs). Your back should not bend at all. Keep the bar close to your body when standing. Hold for a few seconds and rest the bar on the ground by keeping it under control.

Training for beginners

Raised feet with legs stretched – 2 sets of 10 repetitions

Leg flexions in extended position – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Plate Drags – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Intermediate training

Wide Squats – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Raised feet with legs stretched – 3 sets of 8 repetitions

Plate Drags – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Leg flexions in extended position – 2 sets of 10 repetitions

Advanced training

Raised feet with legs stretched – 3 sets of 8 repetitions

Plate Drags – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Wide Squats – 3 sets of 10 repetitions

Leg flexions in extended position – 2 sets of 12 repetitions

Raised ground with bar – 3 sets of 8 repetitions

If you want to get maximum gains for your hamstring muscles, choose one of the 5 hamstrings exercises that fit your experience and incorporate them into your workout routine. Good luck !

Anatomy of the deltoid muscles

Anatomy of the deltoid muscle

We can distinguish three beams in shred fx zero results this deltoid muscle: the anterior deltoid, which is also called by its insertion the deltoid clavicular, the middle deltoid also called the acromial deltoid and the posterior deltoid, also referred to as the spinal deltoid.

The anterior deltoid or deltoid clavicular

The anterior deltoid is inserted on the clavicle and descends along the shoulder along the clavicular bundle.

The middle deltoid or the acromial deltoid

As its name indicates (acromial deltoid), the middle deltoid is inserted on the acromion, this osseous protuberance which articulates with the clavicle.

The posterior deltoid or deltoid spinal

The posterior deltoid is inserted on the spine of the inferior border of the scapula.

Inserted on the shoulder blade, the 3 beams of the deltoid converge to join and end with a common tendon, which then attaches to the deltoid “V” of the humerus.

It is the triangular shape of this muscle which earned him his deltoid name in reference to the Greek letter “Delta”

Function of the deltoid muscle

The deltoid muscle therefore participates essentially in the rotation of the arm in three directions: forward, top and back. Each of the bundles of the deltoid muscle has a specific role allowing for precise movement (s).

The anterior deltoid thus participates in the anteversion of the arm (arm towards the front), and allows the elevation of the latter. This anterior deltoid muscle also allows the internal rotation of the shoulder, bringing the arm within.

The mean deltoid, on the other hand, contributes to the lateral elevation of the arm. This is the main abductor muscle of the shoulder allowing elevation.

Finally, the posterior deltoid muscle represents the back muscle of the arm, thus allowing the arm to rise rearward. It is also the muscle participating in the external rotation, which brings the arm out.

How to muscle shoulders in a few weeks?

The deltoid muscle therefore has a mobilizing role, since it allows a large number of different movements involving the joint of the shoulder.

The muscles of the shoulder and the sporting activity

More than any other muscle, the deltoid muscle participates in almost all the movements practiced in practically all the sports activities (Few activities allow to keep the shoulder still). It is therefore recommended to work the muscle growth of this deltoid, according to the objectives pursued.

The growth of the deltoid will also affect the general stature of the athlete, although in all cases it will be necessary to make sure that the three muscle bundles work well in order to promote a harmonious development.

To develop the volume of this deltoid muscle , lateral elevation or frontal loads will be one of the most commonly used exercises. Thus the dumbbells (with or without bar) will be recommended for the work of these muscles and all exercises of military development (lying or standing) will participate in an efficiency on the growth of this deltoid muscle.

To remember

The deltoid muscle is a mono-articular muscle (shoulder joint), composed of 3 distinct bundles: the anterior deltoid, the middle deltoid and the posterior deltoid. The muscle participates in the rotation of the arm and its elevation. The specific work related to this deltoid muscle makes it possible to increase the volume of the latter.

Training Tips for Developing your shoulders

The time spent sculpting the shape and striae of the shoulder muscles is an important part of upper body workout, but you must first make sure you have enough muscle mass at the deltoids. Here are three tips to have massive shoulders.

Increase weights

Practice with sets of 8 to 12 repetitions, Dsn code black price this is usually the best way to increase muscle mass in most parts of the body (the only exception being the legs, which better respond to a slightly higher number of repetitions high). But I firmly believe that the muscles, especially the deltoids, must also be subjected to very high weights in order to reach their maximum potential – a weight with which you can only do 5 or 6 repetitions. Make side elevations of 8 to 12 (or even 15-20), but I suggest you do military develops (lift weights over your head) in a series of 5 to 6 repetitions at all workouts. It is not that each series of exercises must be done with a heavy load;

Muscle his shoulders

Be creative with your exercises

Most people only change their shoulder training only when it comes to side elevations – they make it from the front, back, sides, dumbbells, cable machines, with different angles – But when it comes to presses, they stick to bars and dumbbells. There are many other variations of the military developed that you have to work in your work routine of the deltoids, such as the military developed at the Smith machine, the Arnold presses, the military developed with the bar in front of you or behind your neck Using a bar or with a Smith machine) and the military developed with dumbbells.

Take breaks between your developed series

As intensity enhancement techniques advocate, I think that the degressive series and superseries are perfect when making front, back and side elevations to develop the deltoids. However, for military developers, my favorite technique is that of breaks. The reason I opt for breaks is that you will never have to lighten the load – you start with a heavy weight and continue with that same weight for the entire series. Here’s how to make your series with breaks: Choose a weight for a military developed to the Smith machine with which you can do about six repetitions. Do a series of 4 to 5 repetitions, rest 15-20 seconds, then do 2 to 3 repetitions with that same weight. Still rest 15 to 20 seconds, Then do another set of 2 to 3 repetitions. At this time of the exercise, you did 8 to 11 repetitions with a weight with which you can normally make only six. These tips will help you have massive and well-designed shoulders, try to implement them at your next workout of the deltoids. After your developed, make side elevations at high intensity and you will benefit from all the benefits: more volume and more defined muscle contours.

Shoulder Training Routine

This workout begins with two exercises where the load is important, and it is ideal for you to build massive and well muscled deltoids.

All about the amino acid citrulline

We often hear about citrulline, sometimes without knowing exactly what it is. Citrulline is an amino acid that is not part of the protein composition, so its action is purely metabolic.

It is useful on several levels: for muscle training, strength, recovery, all these are essential factors for bodybuilding.

Watermelon rich in citrulline

It is a non-essential amino acid , synthesized from other amino acids. Its role is fundamental in association with ornithine and arginine, in the urea cycle. Very little is found in the diet, with the exception of the watermelon which offers a high concentration. There are also some in melon, squash, pumpkin, cucumber. Recent studies show not only that it would conserve muscle mass despite aging, but also to replenish it during diets.


Role and action

  • Metabolization of urea: Co-factor in the production of urea, it is necessary for the elimination of wastes resulting from the degradation of proteins at the muscular level.
  • Removal of ammonia: true ammonia cleaner produced in muscle during intensive and repeated contractions , citrulline decreases the lactic acid responsible for aches and optimizes recovery speed.
  • Recycling of arginine: citrulline produced from arginine is again converted into arginine by the kidney filtration action. This is the main element of endogenous arginine synthesis.

It is also a product and source of arginine. Joint supplementation with arginine and citrulline thus guarantees maximum protein synthesis and optimal recovery rate. In a nutshell, by combining arginine with citrulline your training sessions will be more intensive (more forceful), more productive (dry muscle building), and your recovery faster (less aches and more training frequent).

For the record, citrulline is used in medicine to treat cases of undernutrition resulting from insufficient protein intake.

Citrulline is also effective in maintaining muscle mass and strength. It therefore represents a nutritional alternative to prevent muscle wasting in intense training or low-protein diets.

In addition, L-citrulline is generally very well tolerated even at high doses, unlike other amino acids (arginine or ornithine) which are bound to it and its absorption is better because it does not pass through the liver, thus improving Protein synthesis.